Hierarchical leadership is a permission machine. The machine is primed to respond with “No”.
People’s work becomes figuring out how to override the default response … moving the machine to “Yes”. And then doing it again. And again. Working with the mysterious machine to get permission to move things forward.
Managers might exist simply to push at the levers … trying for the right combination to produce a “Yes”. Other managers might exist simply to increase the volume and frequency of the default response. “No.”
Eventually, people get tired. The levers get heavy.
Who loses? Everybody.
Authority loses (Shareholders do, too).